The standard prelude of Curry with type classes. All exported functions, data types, type classes and methods defined in this module are always available in any Curry program.
(/==)
:: Data a => a > a > Bool
The negation of strict equality. 
shows
:: Show a => a > String > String

showChar
:: Char > String > String

showString
:: String > String > String

showParen
:: Bool > (String > String) > String > String

reads
:: Read a => String > [(a,String)]

readParen
:: Bool > (String > [(a,String)]) > String > [(a,String)]

read
:: Read a => String > a

lex
:: String > [(String,String)]

even
:: Integral a => a > Bool
Returns whether an integer is even. 
odd
:: Integral a => a > Bool
Returns whether an integer is odd. 
fromIntegral
:: (Integral a, Num b) => a > b
General coercion from integral types. 
realToFrac
:: (Real a, Fractional b) => a > b
General coercion to fractional types. 
(^)
:: (Num a, Integral b) => a > b > a

(<$>)
:: Functor a => (b > c) > a b > a c

liftM2
:: Monad a => (b > c > d) > a b > a c > a d

sequence
:: Monad a => [a b] > a [b]
Executes a sequence of monadic actions and collects all results in a list. 
sequence_
:: Monad a => [a b] > a ()
Executes a sequence of monadic actions and ignores the results. 
mapM
:: Monad a => (b > a c) > [b] > a [c]
Maps a monadic action function on a list of elements. 
mapM_
:: Monad a => (b > a c) > [b] > a ()
Maps an monadic action function on a list of elements. 
isUpper
:: Char > Bool
Returns true if the argument is an uppercase letter. 
isLower
:: Char > Bool
Returns true if the argument is an lowercase letter. 
isAlpha
:: Char > Bool
Returns true if the argument is a letter. 
isDigit
:: Char > Bool
Returns true if the argument is a decimal digit. 
isAlphaNum
:: Char > Bool
Returns true if the argument is a letter or digit. 
isBinDigit
:: Char > Bool
Returns true if the argument is a binary digit. 
isOctDigit
:: Char > Bool
Returns true if the argument is an octal digit. 
isHexDigit
:: Char > Bool
Returns true if the argument is a hexadecimal digit. 
isSpace
:: Char > Bool
Returns true if the argument is a white space. 
ord
:: Char > Int
Converts a character into its ASCII value. 
chr
:: Int > Char
Converts a Unicode value into a character. 
lines
:: String > [String]
Breaks a string into a list of lines where a line is terminated at a newline character. 
unlines
:: [String] > String
Concatenates a list of strings with terminating newlines. 
words
:: String > [String]
Breaks a string into a list of words where the words are delimited by white spaces. 
unwords
:: [String] > String
Concatenates a list of strings with a blank between two strings. 
($)
:: (a > b) > a > b
Rightassociative application. 
($!)
:: (a > b) > a > b
Rightassociative application with strict evaluation of its argument to head normal form. 
($!!)
:: (a > b) > a > b
Rightassociative application with strict evaluation of its argument to normal form. 
($#)
:: (a > b) > a > b
Rightassociative application with strict evaluation of its argument to a nonvariable term. 
($##)
:: (a > b) > a > b
Rightassociative application with strict evaluation of its argument to ground normal form. 
seq
:: a > b > b
Evaluates the first argument to head normal form (which could also be a free variable) and returns the second argument. 
ensureNotFree
:: a > a
Evaluates the argument to head normal form and returns it. 
ensureSpine
:: [a] > [a]
Evaluates the argument to spine form and returns it. 
normalForm
:: a > a
Evaluates the argument to normal form and returns it. 
groundNormalForm
:: a > a
Evaluates the argument to ground normal form and returns it. 
(.)
:: (a > b) > (c > a) > c > b
Function composition. 
id
:: a > a
Identity function. 
const
:: a > b > a
Constant function. 
asTypeOf
:: a > a > a
asTypeOf
is a typerestricted version of const .

curry
:: ((a,b) > c) > a > b > c
Converts an uncurried function to a curried function. 
uncurry
:: (a > b > c) > (a,b) > c
Converts an curried function to a function on pairs. 
flip
:: (a > b > c) > b > a > c
flip f
is identical to f , but with the order of arguments reversed.

until
:: (a > Bool) > (a > a) > a > a
Repeats application of a function until a predicate holds. 
(&&)
:: Bool > Bool > Bool
Sequential conjunction on Booleans. 
()
:: Bool > Bool > Bool
Sequential disjunction on Booleans. 
not
:: Bool > Bool
Negation on Booleans. 
otherwise
:: Bool
Useful name for the last condition in a sequence of conditional equations. 
ifThenElse
:: Bool > a > a > a
The standard conditional. 
fst
:: (a,b) > a
Selects the first component of a pair. 
snd
:: (a,b) > b
Selects the second component of a pair. 
head
:: [a] > a
Computes the first element of a list. 
tail
:: [a] > [a]
Computes the remaining elements of a list. 
null
:: [a] > Bool
Is a list empty? 
(++)
:: [a] > [a] > [a]
Concatenates two lists. 
length
:: [a] > Int
Computes the length of a list. 
(!!)
:: [a] > Int > a
List index (subscript) operator, head has index 0. 
map
:: (a > b) > [a] > [b]
Maps a function on all elements of a list. 
foldl
:: (a > b > a) > a > [b] > a
Accumulates all list elements by applying a binary operator from left to right. 
foldl1
:: (a > a > a) > [a] > a
Accumulates a nonempty list from left to right. 
foldr
:: (a > b > b) > b > [a] > b
Accumulates all list elements by applying a binary operator from right to left. 
foldr1
:: (a > a > a) > [a] > a
Accumulates a nonempty list from right to left: 
filter
:: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a]
Filters all elements satisfying a given predicate in a list. 
zip
:: [a] > [b] > [(a,b)]
Joins two lists into one list of pairs. 
zip3
:: [a] > [b] > [c] > [(a,b,c)]
Joins three lists into one list of triples. 
zipWith
:: (a > b > c) > [a] > [b] > [c]
Joins two lists into one list by applying a combination function to corresponding pairs of elements. 
zipWith3
:: (a > b > c > d) > [a] > [b] > [c] > [d]
Joins three lists into one list by applying a combination function to corresponding triples of elements. 
unzip
:: [(a,b)] > ([a],[b])
Transforms a list of pairs into a pair of lists. 
unzip3
:: [(a,b,c)] > ([a],[b],[c])
Transforms a list of triples into a triple of lists. 
concat
:: [[a]] > [a]
Concatenates a list of lists into one list. 
concatMap
:: (a > [b]) > [a] > [b]
Maps a function from elements to lists and merges the result into one list. 
iterate
:: (a > a) > a > [a]
Infinite list of repeated applications of a function f to an element x. 
repeat
:: a > [a]
Infinite list where all elements have the same value. 
replicate
:: Int > a > [a]
List of length n where all elements have the same value. 
take
:: Int > [a] > [a]
Returns prefix of length n. 
drop
:: Int > [a] > [a]
Returns suffix without first n elements. 
splitAt
:: Int > [a] > ([a],[a])
splitAt n xs
is equivalent to (take n xs, drop n xs)

takeWhile
:: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a]
Returns longest prefix with elements satisfying a predicate. 
dropWhile
:: (a > Bool) > [a] > [a]
Returns suffix without takeWhile prefix. 
span
:: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a],[a])
span p xs
is equivalent to (takeWhile p xs, dropWhile p xs)

break
:: (a > Bool) > [a] > ([a],[a])
break p xs
is equivalent to
`(takeWhile (not .

reverse
:: [a] > [a]
Reverses the order of all elements in a list. 
and
:: [Bool] > Bool
Computes the conjunction of a Boolean list. 
or
:: [Bool] > Bool
Computes the disjunction of a Boolean list. 
any
:: (a > Bool) > [a] > Bool
Is there an element in a list satisfying a given predicate? 
all
:: (a > Bool) > [a] > Bool
Is a given predicate satisfied by all elements in a list? 
elem
:: Eq a => a > [a] > Bool
Element of a list? 
notElem
:: Eq a => a > [a] > Bool
Not element of a list? 
lookup
:: Eq a => a > [(a,b)] > Maybe b
Looks up a key in an association list. 
maybe
:: a > (b > a) > Maybe b > a

either
:: (a > b) > (c > b) > Either a c > b

getChar
:: IO Char
An action that reads a character from standard output and returns it. 
getLine
:: IO String
An action that reads a line from standard input and returns it. 
putChar
:: Char > IO ()
An action that puts its character argument on standard output. 
putStr
:: String > IO ()
Action to print a string on standard output. 
putStrLn
:: String > IO ()
Action to print a string with a newline on standard output. 
print
:: Show a => a > IO ()
Converts a term into a string and prints it. 
readFile
:: String > IO String
An action that (lazily) reads a file and returns its contents. 
writeFile
:: String > String > IO ()
An action that writes a file. 
appendFile
:: String > String > IO ()
An action that appends a string to a file. 
userError
:: String > IOError
A user error value is created by providing a description of the error situation as a string. 
ioError
:: IOError > IO a
Raises an I/O exception with a given error value. 
catch
:: IO a > (IOError > IO a) > IO a
Catches a possible error or failure during the execution of an I/O action. 
success
:: Bool
The always satisfiable constraint. 
solve
:: Bool > Bool
Enforce a Boolean condition to be true. 
doSolve
:: Bool > IO ()
Solves a constraint as an I/O action. 
(=:=)
:: Data a => a > a > Bool
The equational constraint. 
constrEq
:: a > a > Bool
Internal operation to implement equational constraints. 
(=:<=)
:: Data a => a > a > Bool
Nonstrict equational constraint. 
(=:<<=)
:: Data a => a > a > Bool
Nonstrict equational constraint for linear functional patterns. 
(&)
:: Bool > Bool > Bool
Concurrent conjunction. 
(&>)
:: Bool > a > a
Conditional expression. 
(?)
:: a > a > a
Nondeterministic choice par excellence. 
anyOf
:: [a] > a
Returns nondeterministically any element of a list. 
unknown
:: Data a => a
Evaluates to a fresh free variable. 
failed
:: a
A nonreducible polymorphic function. 
error
:: String > a
Aborts the execution with an error message. 
apply
:: (a > b) > a > b

cond
:: Bool > a > a

letrec
:: a > a > Bool

failure
:: a > b > c

PEVAL
:: a > a
Identity function used by the partial evaluator to mark expressions to be partially evaluated. 
Constructors:
Constructors:
Constructors:
Constructors:
False
:: Bool
True
:: Bool
Constructors:
LT
:: Ordering
EQ
:: Ordering
GT
:: Ordering
Type synonym: ShowS = String > String
Type synonym: ReadS a = String > [(a,String)]
Type synonym: String = [Char]
Constructors:
Nothing
:: Maybe a
Just
:: a > Maybe a
Constructors:
Left
:: a > Either a b
Right
:: b > Either a b
Constructors:
Type synonym: FilePath = String
The (abstract) type of error values. Currently, it distinguishes between general I/O errors, usergenerated errors (see userError), failures and nondeterminism errors during I/O computations. These errors can be caught by catch. Each error contains a string shortly explaining the error. This type might be extended in the future to distinguish further error situations.
Constructors:
IOError
:: String > IOError
UserError
:: String > IOError
FailError
:: String > IOError
NondetError
:: String > IOError
Type synonym: Success = Bool
Identity type synonym used to mark deterministic operations. Used by the Curry preprocessor.
Type synonym: DET a = a
The negation of strict equality.









Returns whether an integer is even. 
Returns whether an integer is odd. 
General coercion from integral types. 
General coercion to fractional types. 



Executes a sequence of monadic actions and collects all results in a list. 
Executes a sequence of monadic actions and ignores the results. 
Maps a monadic action function on a list of elements. The results of all monadic actions are collected in a list. 
Maps an monadic action function on a list of elements. The results of all monadic actions are ignored. 
Returns true if the argument is an uppercase letter. 
Returns true if the argument is an lowercase letter. 
Returns true if the argument is a letter. 
Returns true if the argument is a decimal digit. 
Returns true if the argument is a letter or digit. 
Returns true if the argument is a binary digit. 
Returns true if the argument is an octal digit. 
Returns true if the argument is a hexadecimal digit. 
Returns true if the argument is a white space. 
Converts a character into its ASCII value. 
Converts a Unicode value into a character. The conversion is total, i.e., for outofbound values, the smallest or largest character is generated. 
Breaks a string into a list of lines where a line is terminated at a newline character. The resulting lines do not contain newline characters. 
Concatenates a list of strings with terminating newlines. 
Breaks a string into a list of words where the words are delimited by white spaces. 
Concatenates a list of strings with a blank between two strings. 
Rightassociative application.

Rightassociative application with strict evaluation of its argument to head normal form.

Rightassociative application with strict evaluation of its argument to normal form.

Rightassociative application with strict evaluation of its argument to a nonvariable term.

Rightassociative application with strict evaluation of its argument to ground normal form.

Evaluates the first argument to head normal form (which could also be a free variable) and returns the second argument.

Evaluates the argument to head normal form and returns it. Suspends until the result is bound to a nonvariable term.

Evaluates the argument to spine form and returns it. Suspends until the result is bound to a nonvariable spine. 
Evaluates the argument to normal form and returns it. 
Evaluates the argument to ground normal form and returns it. Suspends as long as the normal form of the argument is not ground. 
Function composition.

Identity function.

Constant function.


Converts an uncurried function to a curried function. 
Converts an curried function to a function on pairs. 

Repeats application of a function until a predicate holds. 
Sequential conjunction on Booleans.

Sequential disjunction on Booleans.

Negation on Booleans.

Useful name for the last condition in a sequence of conditional equations.

The standard conditional. It suspends if the condition is a free variable. 
Selects the first component of a pair.

Selects the second component of a pair.

Computes the first element of a list.

Computes the remaining elements of a list.

Is a list empty?

Concatenates two lists. Since it is flexible, it could be also used to split a list into two sublists etc.

Computes the length of a list. 
List index (subscript) operator, head has index 0.

Maps a function on all elements of a list. 
Accumulates all list elements by applying a binary operator from left to right. 
Accumulates a nonempty list from left to right.

Accumulates all list elements by applying a binary operator from right to left. 
Accumulates a nonempty list from right to left:

Filters all elements satisfying a given predicate in a list. 
Joins two lists into one list of pairs. If one input list is shorter than the other, the additional elements of the longer list are discarded.

Joins three lists into one list of triples. If one input list is shorter than the other, the additional elements of the longer lists are discarded.

Joins two lists into one list by applying a combination function to
corresponding pairs of elements. Thus 
Joins three lists into one list by applying a combination function to
corresponding triples of elements. Thus 
Transforms a list of pairs into a pair of lists.

Transforms a list of triples into a triple of lists.

Concatenates a list of lists into one list. 
Maps a function from elements to lists and merges the result into one list. 
Infinite list of repeated applications of a function f to an element x.
Thus, 
Infinite list where all elements have the same value.
Thus,

List of length n where all elements have the same value. 
Returns prefix of length n. 
Returns suffix without first n elements. 

Returns longest prefix with elements satisfying a predicate. 
Returns suffix without takeWhile prefix. 


Reverses the order of all elements in a list. 
Computes the conjunction of a Boolean list. 
Computes the disjunction of a Boolean list. 
Is there an element in a list satisfying a given predicate? 
Is a given predicate satisfied by all elements in a list? 
Element of a list?

Not element of a list?

Looks up a key in an association list. 


An action that reads a character from standard output and returns it.

An action that reads a line from standard input and returns it. 
An action that puts its character argument on standard output. 
Action to print a string on standard output. 
Action to print a string with a newline on standard output. 
Converts a term into a string and prints it. 
An action that (lazily) reads a file and returns its contents. 
An action that writes a file. 
An action that appends a string to a file.
It behaves like 
A user error value is created by providing a description of the error situation as a string.

Raises an I/O exception with a given error value. 
Catches a possible error or failure during the execution of an
I/O action.

The always satisfiable constraint.

Enforce a Boolean condition to be true.
The computation fails if the argument evaluates to

Solves a constraint as an I/O action. Note: The constraint should be always solvable in a deterministic way. 
The equational constraint.

Internal operation to implement equational constraints. It is used by the strict equality optimizer but should not be used in regular programs.

Nonstrict equational constraint.
This operation is not intended to be used in source programs
but it is used to implement
functional patterns.
Conceptually,

Nonstrict equational constraint for linear functional patterns. Thus, it must be ensured that the first argument is always (after evalutation by narrowing) a linear pattern. Experimental.

Concurrent conjunction.
An expression like

Conditional expression.
An expression like

Nondeterministic choice par excellence.
The value of

Returns nondeterministically any element of a list. 
Evaluates to a fresh free variable.

A nonreducible polymorphic function. It is useful to express a failure in a search branch of the execution.

Aborts the execution with an error message. 




Identity function used by the partial evaluator to mark expressions to be partially evaluated.
